An 8.8 cm FlaK dual purpose gun (88 mm) was brought in to do the job. La défaite de Sedan a été un révélateur. This was the reason a significant number of French generals insisted on strengthening this sector, while ignoring Sedan. Ce lieu, baptisé par la suite « camp de la misère », fait l'objet de reportages de journaux et de témoignages de prisonniers[25]. However, by 10 May, most of the bunkers were incomplete, lacking gun port shutters for the artillery casemates. The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870. Now that they were pushing largely at an 'open door', the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions advanced into the undefended French rear with speed. Progressivement, le camp est évacué, les prisonniers sont internés en Allemagne, les blessés et les malades évacués dans les hôpitaux. [3] This powerful air concentration numbered some 1,470 aircraft; 600 Heinkel He 111 and Junkers Ju 88 medium bombers and Dornier Do 17 light bombers, 250 Ju 87s, 500 Messerschmitt Bf 109s and 120 Messerschmitt Bf 110s. [50] Moreover, just 56 French casualties were suffered. [73], The race to Bulson ridge began at 16:00 on 13 May. Les troupes de marine de la division dite bleue commandée par le général de Vassoigne reçoivent l'ordre de reprendre le village, la 2e brigade du général Martin des Pallières engage une contre-attaque, appuyée par la 1re brigade du général de Reboul. The Panzer IV had 30 mm of armour, while the Hotchkiss had 45 mm, and the Char B1 had 60 mm of protection. [46], The planned aerial assault would last for eight hours, from 08:00-16:00. Un peu plus tard, à l'Hôtel de Ville, en compagnie de Jules Ferry, de Jules Favre et d'autres députés, il proclame la République. L'armée de la Meuse et la Troisième Armée Prussienne du Feld-Marschall Helmuth von Moltke, accompagné par le roi Guillaume de Prusse et le Chancelier Otto von Bismarck, firent jonction et encerclèrent les restes de l'armée française à Sedan. The better option would be to attack rather than defend. [8] The 2nd Panzer Division, under the command of Generalleutnant (Lieutenant General) Rudolf Veiel, had to hand 45 Panzer I, 115 Panzer II, 59 Panzer III and 32 Panzer IVs. The Second Army built 52,000 cubic metres (1,800,000 cu ft) of concrete fortifications along its front, but very little in the Sedan sector. Initially, only limited numbers of air units were to be used, but the Luftwaffe's workload was greatly increased nearer the time of the battle. He could obey tactical necessity and protect the bridgeheads against a French counter-attack from the south; he could strike west towards Paris with his Corps; or he could carry out the dash to the Channel. L'armée du Rhin commandée par le maréchal Bazaine s'efforce aussi de rejoindre le camp de Châlons afin d'unir ses forces avec celle de Mac-Mahon. Le roi Guillaume de Prusse et son état-major ainsi que son chancelier Otto von Bismarck sont présents, ils vont assister à la bataille depuis une colline près de Frénois, un village au sud-ouest de Sedan. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Vers une heure de l’après-midi, Wimpffen donne ses ordres : contre-attaquer vigoureusement du côté de Bazeilles, en direction de Metz. Tous lui disent que la lutte est devenue sans espoir. [26] To the north of Sedan, on the northern bend of the Meuse, the town of Glaire overlooked the crossing points on the river, which was to be where the German armour would deliver its heaviest blow. SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei Instead, Guderian requested maximum support from the Luftwaffe. Seul le château de Sedan et les casernes militaires sont conservés. Sedan was a part of the extended Maginot Line that ran north behind the Meuse river. [81], The French offensive at Stonne was of vital importance. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9791032101605, . La défaite va précipiter le déclassement de la place forte. Une émission de la chaîne de télévision franco-allemande Arte, le 22 novembre 2006, émit l'hypothèse que cette guerre fut la « mère » des deux guerres mondiales du XXe siècle. [33] However, the artillery regiments lacked ammunition. Le 23 août, la régente et le conseil des ministres ordonnent à Mac-Mahon d'aller secourir Bazaine. However, one crucial disadvantage of the French tanks, considered as a very broad whole, was their low endurance. Moreover, the blow would strike at the dividing line between the French Ninth Army and the French Second Army. Cet acte de capitulation précise que la place forte ainsi qu'armes, munitions, matériels, chevaux et drapeaux seront remis aux vainqueurs[22],[24] et que l'armée prisonnière sera conduite sur la presqu'île d'Iges, à l'ouest de Sedan. It had also lost 12 dead and 65 wounded. General Franz Halder had dropped this from Fall Gelb, but Guderian resurrected it and ordered the 10th Panzer Division and Großdeutschland Infantry Regiment to attack across the Stonne plateau. He spent hours reconnoitring the terrain, sometimes trying to contain and reason with fleeing, routing scores of French infantrymen and artillerymen of the 55th and 71st Infantry Divisions, and travelling around the area to various regimental headquarters, looking for his Corps commander, General Gransard (who was deliberately reconnoitring the terrain, for some time, at that relative point in time), for an order to attack, and, in the meantime, extemporarily assessing and conferring with some local command personnel. The town remained a base situated on high ground overlooking Sedan. The 1st Panzer Division had struggled to advance as quickly as it would have liked, and was jammed on the roads leading out of Gaulier and Sedan. [20] Maurice Gamelin described the geographical feature as "Europe's best tank obstacle". [37], To relieve the 55th Infantry Division, the French 71st Infantry Division was ordered out of reserve and into the frontline. Butler, James Ramsay Montagu. On 12 May, Sedan was captured without resistance and the Germans defeated the French defences around Sedan on the west bank of the Meuse. Leggi «La Bataille de Sedan. [9] This meant 167 aircraft had been lost against one target. Mai 2020, quatre-vingtième anniversaire du désastre de Sedan. In some cases, Infantry regiments were made up of several different companies from several different battalions from different regiments. Le 1er septembre à 4 heures du matin, une partie du premier corps bavarois s'infiltre dans Bazeilles sur le flanc est du château de Sedan. Ce fut une victoire décisive des forces prussiennes, l'Empereur ayant lui-même été fait prisonnier, mettant fin à la guerre en faveur de la Prusse et de ses alliés (la Bavière notamment), bien que le combat continuât sous la nouvelle République. [68] The Germans had to hold the French at the ridge. Guderian saw things differently, and pointed out that a thrust along the lines of Kleist's plan would put the flank of the advance within range of the fortress artillery at Charleville-Mézières, some 25 kilometres (16 mi) north west of Sedan. Of those, the 55th Infantry Division got 422. Une somme de cinq milliards de francs or est demandée à titre de dommages de guerre. Outre les nombreux lieux de mémoire disséminés autour de Sedan, les conséquences vont être très importantes pour l'ancienne Principauté de Sedan, protestante et indépendante, à cette époque très prospère économiquement mais engoncée dans ses remparts[26]. At this time, Stonne was held only by the 1st Battalion Großdeutschland supported by only nine of the Regiment's 12 anti-tank artillery guns. Le 27 avril 1877, le conseil municipal adopte le plan d'agrandissement et le chantier d'extension démarre. Unsupported and acting on their own initiative, this small force led by Feldwebel Walter Rubarth opened a decisive breach by knocking out seven bunker positions. The Germans achieved the Meuse crossing after just 57 hours. To supplement his air support, Guderian stripped most of his Panzer Divisions of their artillery, which he then positioned directly opposite Gaulier. Le 27 août, Mac-Mahon décide ainsi de renoncer à sauver Bazaine. [52], The central ground assault was to be conducted by the 1st Panzer Division and supported by the Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland and the Sturmpionier-Battalion 43 (43rd Assault Engineer Battalion) as the 1st Panzer only had a single rifle regiment. Mai 1940» di Général Général Yves Lafontaine disponibile su Rakuten Kobo. Gravement blessé par un projectile qui lui a traversé les joues, le général Margueritte décédera dans un hôpital belge quelques jours plus tard. Only 42 bunkers protected the Sedan bridgeheads on the outbreak of war in September 1939 and an additional 61 were built by 10 May. With help from two platoons of the 3rd Company of the 34th Assault Engineer Battalion, it had succeeded in knocking out the bunker positions. To Guderian, this was madness and would throw away the victory at Sedan and allow the enemy time to recover and reorganise its still formidable armoured units. The German victory in the air battle had been decisive. L'État cède à la ville de nombreux bastions et bâtiments militaires et apporte son aide matérielle et financière. 76 Wing RAF lost 11 Battles. It was thought that the 213th could reach an area in between Chéhéry and Bulson in one hour fifty minutes and the 7th Tank Battalion in two hours. Le commandement des troupes françaises dépend d'abord du maréchal Mac-Mahon. Se doutant que l'empereur veut tenter d'adoucir les conditions de la capitulation, le ministre du roi de Prusse refuse que Napoléon III rencontre Guillaume à Vendresse. [28], As the German Army advanced through southern Belgium on 12 May, General Ewald von Kleist and Guderian clashed over where the main point of effort should fall. Guderian reported there was no sign of the enemy. [68] Lead elements of the 1st and 2nd Panzer Divisions had reached the ridge just minutes before, having travelled 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) in less time. [56] The bulk of the 174 artillery pieces available to the French at Sedan were concentrated on the 2nd Panzer Division's front. [12], Near the town of Bazeilles, the Engineers and assault infantry had gathered to prepare the boats for the crossing of the Meuse at Wadelincourt when an artillery barrage from the French positions destroyed 81 out of 96 rubber boats. À Reims, au camp de Courcelles, Mac-Mahon complète ses effectifs, réorganise son armée et se prépare à défendre la capitale. 265. Des prisonniers capturent des chevaux pour les dépecer, se servant des caissons et des chariots, voire de selles en cuir, pour faire du feu. 232 and Sd.Kfz. All Hello, Sign in. [54] The Großdeutschland Regiment had now penetrated 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) into the French defences. La bataille de Sedan a eu lieu le 1er septembre 1870, durant la guerre franco-prussienne. Some of the French 102nd Infantry division's batteries also joined in from the north west, at Charleville. Ce traité engendrera un désir de revanche chez les Français, qui n'auront de cesse de vouloir récupérer les territoires perdus. À sept heures, Mac-Mahon, blessé à la fesse par un éclat d’obus, abandonne son commandement. Les options pour le commandant de l'armée de Châlons sont celles-ci : soit il prend la direction de Metz, avec la perspective de se voir couper la route par les Saxons et voir aussi l'armée prussienne remonter des environs de Châlons en le prenant à revers, soit il renonce et vient défendre Paris. [63] GB I/34 and II/34 could muster eight aircraft out of 22 Amiot 143s, I/38 seven out of 12, and II/38 six out of 11. However, when one German platoon managed to knock out three French Char B1s, the French tank crews panicked and drove away to the south. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9791032101605, . [46] Sturzkampfgeschwader 77 struck first in the morning of 13 May. Fliegerkorps. The French were certain such terrain could not be crossed by tanks. Only 24 guns remained and they did not arrive on the battlefield until 17:00. The attacks isolated the forward defence lines. By the end of the day, the bridgehead had been consolidated and the objective taken. Once these lightly defended areas were negotiated, Army Group A's XIX. Certes, les armées françaises ont enregistré quelques succès avant Sedan, mais ils ont été mal exploités. Mai 1940 by Général Général Yves Lafontaine and Publisher Editions de Fallois. Là était la seule possibilité pour l'armée française de s'échapper pour rejoindre Mézières. [16] The Germans noted the particular weakness between the chassis and turret of the French tanks, which were vulnerable to their fire. He also felt that a regrouping period in front of Sedan would delay the assault for 24 hours and allow the French to bring up reinforcements. Cart Hello Select your address Best Sellers Today's Deals Electronics Gift Ideas Customer Service Books Home New Releases Computers Gift Cards Coupons Sell. The French committed the 3d Company, 49th Tank Battalion; 1st Company, 45th Tank Battalion; and the 2d Company, 4th Tank Battalion; the 1st Battalion, 67th Infantry Regiment; and the 1st Company, 51st Infantry Regiment. Instead of making sure the medium Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks had priority in crossing the Meuse, the Germans had sent few across, and the van of the advance contained mostly lightly armed and lightly armoured although faster Panzer Is and Panzer IIs. Several boats were tied to the Panzers and dragged across, but the tanks were knocked out. Luftwaffe bombing and low morale prevented the French defenders from destroying the bridgeheads. Most units had been involved in construction work and were constantly moved to different tactical positions. Mac-Mahon reprend l'option d'aller sur Metz et de passer la Meuse vers le secteur de Stenay, mais à force de tergiverser sous la pression des autorités et sous l'action combinée des deux armées des princes allemands, la situation de son corps d'armée se fragilise. The French Corps was heading towards Sedan, but withdrew southward after the engagement. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Company retreated under the cover of part of the ridge, and moved its single tank back and forth, simulating the presence of many German tanks. Mais Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke est renseigné de l'objectif de Mac-Mahon par la presse[5],[6]. Prior to this masses of lorries, armoured cars and other traffic had passed through but not tanks. Alors Napoléon III se ressaisit. The steep slopes on the banks of the Meuse, added to what appeared in photographic reconnaissance to be a formidable barrier of bunkers and defence lines, caused Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, the commander in chief of Army Group A, to question the wisdom of Guderian in choosing Sedan as the point of maximum effort. Le général Faure, chef d’état-major, estimant n’avoir à obéir qu’à Wimpffen, fait retirer le drapeau. Cet endroit bordé par une boucle du fleuve Meuse et un canal, et d'une superficie de plusieurs centaines d'hectares, devient alors une véritable prison à ciel ouvert, pouvant être facilement gardé par les armées des États allemands. L'Empereur s'est dessaisi du commandement militaire le 12 août au profit de Bazaine, lequel, s’étant entretemps laissé encercler à Metz, ne commande plus qu’à sa propre armée. Le 1er septembre 1870 se joue l’avenir du Second Empire. The Germans' advance intended to strike at Connage to the south of the town of Chéhéry, to outflank the French. La bataille de Bazeilles a coûté à la France la vie de 2 655 marsouins et bigors et à l'Allemagne celle de près de 5 000 Bavarois[12],[13]. 222, Sd.Kfz. The 147th Fortress Regiment was the backbone of the 55th Infantry Division and was to occupy the bunker positions on the Meuse. [57], The 10th Panzer Division, like the 2nd Panzer Division, had detached its heavy artillery batteries to support neighbouring units. Any potential threat on the German western flank had been removed. General Gaston-Henri Billotte, commander of the First French Army Group, whose right flank pivoted on Sedan, urged that the bridges across the Meuse be destroyed by air attack, convinced that "over them will pass either victory or defeat!". The impressive escort was offset by the presence of German fighter units that outnumbered the Allied escort fighters by 3:1. It was on the northern bend of the Sedan Meuse loop that the Luftwaffe was to make its maximum effort, between Gaulier and Wadelincourt. La bataille de Sedan a eu lieu le 1 septembre 1870, durant la guerre franco-prussienne. Die tapferen Leute)[18],[19]. La Bataille de Sedan, laquelle s'est déroulée, lors de la guerre franco-prussienne, le 1er septembre 1870, est racontée par Guillaume Ier (1811-1890), roi de Prusse, dans une lettre du 3 septembre 1870 adressée à son épouse, la reine Augusta de Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. The attacks were made in Gruppe (group) strength and against the line of maximum resistance along the enemy gun line. They eased the 2nd Panzer's passage by knocking out several bunkers on their eastern flank and succeeded in cutting the Donchery-Sedan road. In the next attacks, they held their positions and fought. [86], Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Sedan_(1940)&oldid=1004300363, Battles of World War II involving Germany, Land battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Tank battles involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. La plupart des généraux se regroupent autour de l’Empereur à la sous-préfecture. GB I/12 and II/12 had only 13 LeO 451s between them. Magnifiquement réalisé façon wargame par IJIN / Yannick Tholomier, un résumé en 7 minutes de la bataille qui couta la défaite à la France face aux états allemands coalisés en septembre 1870. The telecommunication cables were destroyed (most had been laid out in the open) through bombing, paralysing the division's communications, and the psychological damage crippled its defensive capacity.